Generally, it has been seen that improper earthing/ grounding accounts for up to 40% of costlier power related problems, including damages and downtime-whether it is lightning voltage induced between equipment cabinets, multi-grounding on the site or poor operation of computerized electronics & power generation units.

To address all these Issues, we provide Maintenance Free Earthing System based on the use of ERICO’s Copper Bonded Earth Rods. The Earth Rods are UL listed and meet the stringent requirements of relevant inter-national standards.

We Provide:

  • Advanced Maintenance Free Chemical Earthing
  • Electrical Grounding Systems and Solutions
  • Maintenance Free Earthing Systems

These systems  provides long life to equipment, safety of the personnel, does not require any maintenance as well as reduces the maintenance cost. This system is used with Ground Enhancement Material, called GEM, to provide a good life span without any need to have scheduled or routine maintenance.

GEM is superior conductive material that improves grounding effectiveness; especially in areas of poor conductivity (rocky ground, area of moisture variation, sandy soil etc) It has a resistivity of just 0.12 Ohm-mtr. Major advantage of this material is that it does not depend on the continuous presence of water to maintain its conductivity. GEM has resistivity 20 times lower than bentonite clay and retains moisture when there is no rain at all in the region.

It may be noted that the Earthing solutions provided by ERICO is being used in Power, Telecom, Defence and general industry. For power distribution we have provided the solutions to BSES Rajdhani and BSES Yamuna and are replacing all the existing conventional Earthing of all the distribution transformers and grids in Delhi with state of the art Earthing using ERICO products and technology. We have also provided Earthing solutions to Reliance Energy for their Dahanu Power Plant.

Please note that normally there are only two type of earthing solutions available i.e. Conventional Earthing & Chemical Earthing, but in both the cases customer has to maintain(pouring water to get the good resistance value) and also need to do timely recharge (changing of Salt / Charcoal / Chemical), moreover the life span is also very less. The concept we would like to introduce here is the use of Maintenance Free Earthing (i.e. no recharging/ water is required to have a consistence earth resistance). The product is not only used internationally but it is also getting successful in INDIA as well.

EARTHING / GROUNDING

Dissipate the energy into a low impedance grounding system. Bond all ground points together to eliminate ground loops and create an equipotential plane.

What is an earth / ground?

It is a path for electrons to return to the source and in turn displace any difference in potential.

Grounding basically covers two issues:

  • Connections to ground – providing an intentional connection to the greater mass of the earth.
  • Bonding – ensure a safe environment for people and equipment by maintaining the same potential.

Why do we ground?

  • Personnel Safety

-          Reduce potential differences between non-current carrying parts (enclosures) and between non-current carrying parts and Earth.

  • System stability

-          Operate over current device during a ground fault.

  • Protect equipment

-          Over voltage control.

-          Lightning Dissipation

-          ESD (Electrostatic Discharge)

  • Reliability of Equipment

-          Noise Control (Computer Grounding, SRG)

 

Guidelines / Rules

International Electro technical Commission (IEC)

Underwriters Laboratory (UL)

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

British Standards (BS)

Mine Health Safety Health Administration (MSHA)

Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers (IEEE)

Occupational Safety Health Administration (OSHA)

Telecommunication Industry Association (TIA)

European Committee for Electro Technical Standardization (CENELEC)

 

What is a good ground?

Ideally, zero ohms resistance

  • Some standards require a single electrode, of specified dimensions
  • Others want a figure below a specified value
    • NEC          < 25W
    • Telecom    < 5W
    • Power        < 1W
  • Combination of the above

Goal is practical and dependant on governing factors

  • Physical limitations of the site
  • An economic solution

Characteristics

A good grounding system:

Has a low resistance path into ground.

The lower the resistance the more likely lightning, surge and fault currents will flow safely to and dissipated to ground Does not deteriorate over time.

A grounding system must resist corrosion and be capable of repeatedly carrying high currents.

Typically, a life in excess of 30 years!

Grounding Design

When designing the grounding system, we must consider each of the components as part of a chain:

  • Soil
  • Electrode to soil
  • Electrode
  • Connector
  • Ground Conductor

Rounding Chain

SOIL

  • Soil resistivity must be carefully considered, including moisture content temperature and seasons.
  • Resistivity is measured to determine information necessary to design and build an electrode system
  • Bore samples confirm sub-strata composition
  • Usually measure resistivity using the Wenner method (developed in 1915 by Frank Wenner)

Grounding Design

For any design, we need to establish the parameters:

  • Required ground resistance;
    • From standard or specified by client
    • Soil resistivity;
      • At least 2 measurements at 90 degrees
      • Many measurements at different spacings
      • Bore hole survey of site
      • Site area and limitations (drawings)
        • Property outline
        • Existing structures, paved areas
        • Buried pipes and services

Resistivity

Also known as specific resistance:

  • Physical characteristic of the material
    • Copper = 1.72 x 10-8 ohm.m
    • GEM = 0.12 ohm.m
    • Bentonite = 2.5 ohm.m (typical)
    • Concrete = 30 to 90 ohm.m
    • Sand (moist) = 300 ohm.m
    • Gravel (moist) = 500 ohm.m
    • Sand (dry) = 1000 ohm.m
    • Stoney soil = 30,000 ohm.m

GROUND ENHANCEMENT

  • Chemicals (salts)
  • Calcium Chloride or Sodium Chloride
  • Bentonite
  • Hydrous Aluminium Silicates
    • GEM ® & E-Gel Proprietary Formulations

CHEMICALS (SALTS)

  • Leach into environment (pollution)
  • Accelerate corrosion
  • Maintenance replacement issue

BENTONITE

  • Requires moisture to form electrolyte
  • Effective when wet
  • Low initial cost
  • May pull away from rod or soil when it dries

GEMÒ

  • Very effective – conducts wet or dry
  • 20 times more conductive than Bentonite
  • Provides seasonal stability – sets hard
  • Easy to use
  • 12 kilogram bags
  • Install wet or dry
    • Design software available

GROUND RODS (Electrodes)

Materials are selected for corrosion resistance:

  • Galvanised steel rods are cheap but have a relatively short service life
  • Solid copper and stainless steel rods have a long service life but are considerably more expensive
  •  Copperbonded earth rods are less expensive than solid copper and can be deep driven

 

International standards require a minimum of 0.25 mm copper on a Copperbonded rod

  • Requirement of BS7430; UL467
  • Copper specimens buried in 43 soil types for 8-13 yrs
  • Calculated average penetration in 30 years would be 0.17 mm in 41 of the 43 different soils
  • Base on this, 0.25 mm established as minimum

Comparison of life expectancy

CONNECTOR

Connections must maintain the integrity of the conductor and the system as a whole for up to 40 years.

They must be of an appropriate material and mass to:

  • carry prospective fault currents
  • be able to resist corrosion
  • maintain original low resistance

Maintenance Free Earthing System: Earthing associated with current carrying conductor is normally essential to the security of the system and is generally known as system earthing, while earthing of non-current carrying metal work and conductor is essential to the safety of human.” Proper grounding is a kind of a great science of obtaining path for the dissipation of current in to the earth. Hence it is imperative to understand grounding fundamentals. Earthing is the physical bonding / connection of electrical / electronic equipments by a conductor to the earth. It is a known fact that earth composition is of a numerous material that are variously good & poor conductors of electricity but the earth considered a good conductor. For this reason and as a reference point, the earth’s potential is assumed to be zero. When an object is grounded, it is thereby forced to assume the same zero potential as the earth. If in case of variation in the potential of the grounded object (higher / lower), current will pass through the grounding connection until the potential of the object and earth are the same. Generally, it has been seen that improper earthing/ grounding accounts for up to 40% of costlier power related problems, including damages and downtime-whether it is lightning voltage induced between equipment cabinets, multi-grounding on the site or poor operation of computerized electronics & power generation units.

• To address all these Issues, we provide Maintenance Free Earthing System based on the use of ERICO’s Copper Bonded Earth Rods. The Earth Rods are UL listed and meet the stringent requirements of relevant inter-national standards.

• This system provides long life to equipment, safety of the personnel, does not require any maintenance as well as reduces the maintenance cost. This system is used with Ground Enhancement Material, called GEM, to provide a good life span without any need to have scheduled or routine maintenance.

• GEM is superior conductive material that improves grounding effectiveness; especially in areas of poor conductivity (rocky ground, area of moisture variation, sandy soil etc) It has a resistivity of just 0.12 Ohm-mtr. Major advantage of this material is that it does not depend on the continuous presence of water to maintain its conductivity. GEM has resistivity 20 times lower than bentonite clay and retains moisture when there is no rain at all in the region.

• It may be noted that the Earthing solutions provided by ERICO is being used in Power, Telecom, Defence and general industry. For power distribution we have provided the solutions to BSES Rajdhani and BSES Yamuna and are replacing all the existing conventional Earthing of all the distribution transformers and grids in Delhi with state of the art Earthing using ERICO products and technology. We have also provided Earthing solutions to Reliance Energy for their Dahanu Power Plant.

• Please note that normally there are only two type of earthing solutions available i.e. Conventional Earthing & Chemical Earthing, but in both the cases customer has to maintain(pouring water to get the good resistance value) and also need to do timely recharge (changing of Salt / Charcoal / Chemical), moreover the life span is also very less. The concept we would like to introduce here is the use of Maintenance Free Earthing (i.e. no recharging/ water is required to have a consistence earth resistance). The product is not only used internationally but it is also getting successful in INDIA as well

Copper Bonded Earthing Electrode Solid ROD 10 Ft long, 5/8 inch (14.2mm) diameter Made of 1035 grade cold rolled steel with coating of nickel & molecularly bonded copper of 250 micron (0.25mm) thickness.

Ground Enhancement Material (GEM-25A BAGS) – anti corrosive, good conductor of electricity and of low resistivity, It is very effective in reducing soil resistivity specially in rocky & sandy soils & does not affect water bed. One clamp to facilitate inter connection of earthing strip to electrode rod.

Given below are some of the Advantages of Advanced Grounding/Earthing System

1) Service LIFE of minimum 35 years in most of the soil conditions.
2) Consistency in values (ohmic values remains constant most of the life span)
3) Absolutely Maintenance Free (does not require continuous presence of water to maintain effectiveness)
4) Does not dissolve, decompose nor leach out with time.
5) Its environmentally Safe – does not leach ions or contaminate ground water.
5) Meets IEEE STD 80, IS 3043 1987, IEC 62561-7, ANSI (American National Standards & BS (British Standards) for Hi-Fault Current Carrying Capacity & soil treatment for lowering resistivity.
6) Complies with quality adherence & requirement of ANSI / UL 467
7) All the Copper bonded rods have UL mark.